Victim or Victor?

Recently, there have been hyper-focused discussions on whether modern Western society has adopted a “Victim Culture” with everchanging power dynamics where silenced voices are now finding megaphones.

There is a high probability that many of us can say we've gone through an event that has been painful, harmful, and traumatic. Such events can shape our perspectives of the world around us, how we perceive the people in it, and how we see ourselves. 

Being a victim of harm or a crime is a reality for many people, yet identifying as a victim is not so universal. A victim is defined as a person harmed, injured, or killed because of a crime, accident, or other event or action. In contrast, victimhood is the state of being a victim as well as identifying as a victim.

Recently, there have been hyper-focused discussions on whether modern Western society has adopted a "Victim Culture." This rhetoric suggests that everyone seems to identify as a victim now and that victimhood is often used as leverage or a power play. This conclusion can be seductive when trying to grapple with everchanging power dynamics in our society, where silenced voices now finding megaphones.

It is critical to be able to distinguish legitimate victimization versus the use of victimhood to avoid self-responsibility and accountability. This becomes problematic when arguments about the rise of victimhood are used to silence the voices of historically marginalized groups.

For business leaders, being able to recognize when someone is using victimhood to disrupt company culture, peace, is becoming increasingly important to maintain a positive company culture and avoid the virus of victimhood to weave into the fabric of the culture.

🤕 Victimhood 🤕

Using terms like "victim culture" truly misses the mark in getting to the root issues that victimhood can cause because somebody can be a victim of an event and still not identify with victimhood. 

Victim mentality is defined as an acquired personality trait in which a person believes that only negative actions from others happen to them, despite contrary evidence of that being a reality, and a key to understanding the negative impact of victimhood is to focus on the lack of evidence that supports the perpetuation of the victim state.

Victimhood Cartoon

We are exposed to many conflicting messages of victimization and victimhood through social media platforms, which is why it's extremely beneficial to understand "victim signaling," which is defined as a public and intentional expression of one's disadvantages, suffering, and oppression or personal limitations.

There are pros and cons to every type of system. Regarding victimhood, it has been argued that Western democracies are the perfect environments for victim signalers to intentionally use their victimhood to gain benefits usually afforded to victims. These benefits include but are not limited to justice, truth, economic compensation, independence, political representation, and martyrdom, among others.

By being perceived as virtuous, the victim obtains a higher moral standard than the perpetrator. For example, people will most likely feel more sympathy for an elderly woman who was shot while working at a homeless shelter than they will for a man who was shot because he belonged to a gang.

In a second scenario, the concept of Virtuous Victim Signaling would rob him of the sympathy of others because of the implicit and explicit biases of people who participate in gang activity.

Virtuous victim signaling presents a slippery slope of deciphering what is deemed morally favorable for others and therefore deserving of sympathy or other material reprisals. When we label someone as a victim, we typically refer to the classic definition of someone who has been harmed, injured, or killed because of a crime, accident, or another action or event. Where there is a victim, there must be a perpetrator of said harm.

As victimologists Kieran McEvoy and Kirsten McConnachie have pointed out, this simple definition rejects the complexity of scenarios we observe where a victim can also be a perpetrator of the same act or something completely unrelated.

A common argument regarding victimhood is that because Western societies tend to prioritize egalitarian values, differences in outcomes among people or groups are considered illegitimate, leading to increased victimhood.

This argument seems to fit well in a society where victimhood is confused for systemic victimization because there is an undertone of collective fear that many individuals who have never been victimized purposefully identify as victims and deceive others for personal gain.

If you act like a victim, you are likely to be treated as one.

Paulo Coelho

Tendency for Interpersonal Victimhood (TIV)

While it can be confusing to discern victim from victimhood from many, especially in a world where many exploit and deceive others utilizing victim signaling, psychologists in Israel have recently coined a behavioral predisposition referred to as Tendency for Interpersonal Victimhood (TIV) to better understand the attributes of victimhood iteself.

While actual trauma and victimization often have detrimental psychological consequences, research suggests that developing a victimhood mindset can also be dependent on other variables such as context, socialization, and attachment style. 

Specifically, the anxious attachment style has been shown to be positively linked with TIV, which is defined as "an enduring feeling that the self is a victim across different kinds of interpersonal relationships."

Initial studies conducted by Gabay and her colleagues established TIV as a consistent and stable trait that involves four dimensions: moral elitism, a lack of empathy, the need for recognition, and rumination.

Victims in the Workplace

Victimhood can be highly detrimental to company culture, team dynamics, and productivity by distorting constructs such as individual accountability and integrity. If a co-worker is exhibiting victimhood, addressing it from the beginning is a proactive approach and will prevent deeper-rooted issues in the future.

Studies have shown that job status doesn't significantly influence perceived victimization. In fact, it is often seen across all levels of management within a company. Researchers Aquino and Bradfield found that highly aggressive employees perceived themselves as being victimized more than those who are less aggressive.

🧐 Victimhood Indicators 🧐

1. Blaming others when things go wrong or if a goal is not met.
2. Centering conversations around one's problems.
3. Refusing to join in on workplace activities or team-building exercises.
4. Sharing how others achieve success easier because they receive special treatment or better assignments.
5. Continually creating or involving oneself in workplace drama.
6. Only agrees to carry out tasks after displays of passive-aggressive resistance.

If you find that the characteristics above resonate with a current co-worker, there are ways to address and resolve this disturbance in a professional manner. 

The following strategies are intended for those in management positions.

  • Test their claims - If the individual presents an example that their manager is the reason they are not performing, test this by assigning them to another manager or overseeing it yourself (if possible).
  • Give them a solo project - Victimhood tends to prevent individuals from working well within group settings without expelling blame onto others.
  • Create a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) - For each objective, have them address what they need to accomplish said objectives and how they will meet them. This will allow them to provide input and discuss any potential roadblocks they may face. PIP goals should be measurable and clear.
  • Document examples of individual's victim mentality moments - This will be important to provide to HR if any future issues arise.

    It is also important to note that when a co-worker approaches you claiming that something is wrong, you must assume they are right until it is has been demonstrated not to be the case.

    As someone in a management role, your job is to enable your team members to perform well in their respective roles. You are not expected to be a therapist, and your strategy must revolve around clear and effective performance management.

    “Defeat is a state of mind; No one is ever defeated until defeat has been accepted as a reality.

    Bruce Lee


    Victim labeling continues to walk the thin line of subjectivity and personal bias. As we continue to gain more research behind behavioral phenomena like the Tendency for Interpersonal Victimhood, we can better address the misuse of victimization.

    In addition, we must question why certain topics are being publicly discussed and who benefits from discovering explanatory behavioral tendencies like the TIV.

    Is there enough evidence to suggest the TIV is causing massive disruptions to our society, and are these disruptions only perceived as negative for groups who currently possess majority power?

    Please take a moment to self-reflect on the ways victimhood can show up in your behavior before attempting to discover it in someone else.


    Aquino, K., & Bradfield, M. . (2000). Perceived Victimization in the Workplace: The Role of Situational Factors and Victim Characteristics. Organization Science, 11(5), 525-537. .
    Campbell, B., & Manning, J. . (2014). Microaggression and Moral Cultures. Comparative Sociology, 13(6), 692-726. .
    Dewitt, S. . (2020). What Is Deflection? Psychology Explains This Defense Mechanism . BetterHelp.
    Dolan, E. . (2021). Study finds the need for power predicts engaging in competitive victimhood. PsyPost.
    Gabay, R., Hameiri, B., Rubel-Lifschitz, T., & Nadler, A. . (2020). The tendency for interpersonal victimhood: The personality construct and its consequences. Personality And Individual Differences, 165, 110134. .
    Kaufman, S. . (2021). Unraveling the Mindset of Victimhood. Scientific American.
    Kets de Vries, M. . (2012). Are You a Victim of the Victim Syndrome?. SSRN Electronic Journal.
    Mind Tools . (2021). Managing a Person With a Victim Mentality: Dealing With Team Members Who Won't Take Responsibility. .
    McEvoy, K., & McConnachie, K. . (2012). Victimology in transitional justice: Victimhood, innocence and hierarchy. European Journal Of Criminology, 9(5), 527-538.
    Stiegler, L. . (2021). Five Ways to Manage an Employee with a Victim Mentality . Woods Rogers PLC.
    Sykes, C. . (1992). A Nation of Victims: The Decay of the American Character. .

    I dislike hanging out with people who always feel like they are the victim. Of course, it is just natural to be sad about something but it is an ultimate choice if you want to use it to become better and stronger. Rather than you just stay in the rut. He who conquers himself is the mightiest warrior, a quote that I truly believe in. If you know how to conquer your mind and shift your mindset, you will be able to conquer everything else.

    People who play the victim drain the life out of me. I also had someone that I use to work with who always played the victim. She would drive me crazy. I have also had to manage people with those personalities. Management changes things because you have to learn to deal with those personalities. It can be tough. On a personal level, I don’t want to be bothered

    I identify with this so much. My closest co-worker has such a victim mentality and it is such a drain of energy within the workplace. I am very happy I don’t have to manage this person so I can ignore when I’ve had enough.

    This article is so true about how some people like to play the victim in order to get out of certain assignments or to get out from under scrutiny in the workplace. As a manager for eight years I had many examples of people who would like to turn the tables and say that it was because of their workload that I gave them they couldn’t keep up with their papers being turned in or they would blame their supervisor for making them feel uncomfortable because they were too stern. For me I am a hard worker and I really don’t like excuses for your job not being done. I don’t really remember anybody with really legit reasons for the work not being done it was mainly a lot of excuses and trying to make me feel bad for them for the reasons why they couldn’t get it done and I just I’m frankly over it. So I do think that with so many people complaining or just trying to get out of work it makes it hard for managers to really take people seriously whenever they do have real concerns or they are being maybe a victim in the workplace. Because so many people were complaining about it I guess managers maybe just wouldn’t want to hear it anymore and that’s a problem too.

    I must say that this is some opf teh best advice I have heard, "take a moment to self-reflect on the ways victimhood can show up in your behavior before attempting to discover it in someone else"

    It is definitely common for many people to almost enjoy being the victim. I have worked with a few actors, I won't mention their names, but that love to play the victim. It blows me away.

    I was just having this conversation about victimhood. I do believe from experience that some people love being the victim, even when they are not. Being the victim gives great leverage to not be accountable for your actions, or short comings. It’s always someone else’s fault. It also provides great attention to one’s self, because when someone is saying they are the victim, people tend to pay attention. I do think true victims, and victimhood get intertwined, and lines are getting more and more blurred.